Best Friends Pet Care : The Dog Dish
Best Friends Pet Care : The Dog Dish

ARCHIVE

2016

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Best Friends Pet Care : The Dog Dish

Tag Archives: pet health

Pet Dental Health Month – Basic Extraction Principles

Brush Your Pet's TeethThe oral cavity has an abundant blood supply and an epithelial surface constantly bathed by saliva, a fluid rich in antimicrobial properties, resulting in oral tissue healing more rapid than skin. Sterile surgical preparation of the oral cavity for extractions is not necessary, however, using clean instruments and adequate preparation of the surgical working area is recommended. Good accessibility and exposure to the surgical site is important while creating gingival flaps to expose the tooth and alveolar bone adequately. Gentle tissue handling is used to minimize tissue trauma and promote faster healing. Appropriate instruments that are clean, sharp, well taken care of and stored properly will maintain the effectiveness and longevity of the instruments.

Preference for suture material will vary, however, absorbable sutures are recommended such as chromic gut, Vicryl or Monocryl. Suturing techniques may vary according to procedure, but generally a simple interrupted pattern is used.  Gingival flaps are created to adequately expose the alveolar bone over the roots.  One problem many veterinarians have is that they do not make a large enough flap and when they go to suture closed, the gingival flap may not be large enough to lay over the extraction site and as a result creates too much tension resulting in dehiscence of the flap. When closing gingival flaps there should be absolutely no tension, avoid unnecessary gaps and the sharp edges of alveolar bony crests with spicules should be smoothed with a diamond bur, all will promote optimal healing.

Tags: Ask a Vet, Cats, Dogs, Health, Pet advice, Pet Dental Health, Pet health, Vet

Pet Dental Health Month – Fractured Teeth

Brush Your Pet's TeethPotential causes include previous blunt trauma, e.g., being hit by a car, running into a wall or excessive chewing on hard objects such as rocks, hard Nylabones®, cow hooves, antlers and other objects that do not soften when chewed.

Dogs and cats with fractured teeth typically have pain while chewing and may selectively eliminate hard food from their diet in the acute phase or when the tooth is abscessed. In between the initial insult of injury and when the tooth becomes abscessed there may be no pain present.  The dog or cat may pick up food, attempt to eat it, and drop it out of the mouth (indicating oral pain). Reluctance to play with toys or failure to retrieve or engage in bite work (in working dogs) also signals oral pain. These patients may also resist oral examination or possibly “snap” at you when examining the mouth. Clinical overt signs include pawing at the mouth, rubbing the head or chin along the ground, reluctance to be patted on the head, obvious tooth fractures, ulcers on the tongue or lips from rough sharp enamel edges, excessive salivation and discoloration of the tooth itself.

Discolored teeth indicate the tooth or teeth are non-vital or dead. When a tooth is discolored red or pink, the blood supply to the tooth has leaked into the dentin. The blood supply coming into the tooth at the apex will be compromised causing complete separation of the blood supply. If left untreated, vascular necrosis develops over time and the tooth dies. The crown will initially will be red or pink, then will change to purple, light gray and eventually dark gray. Damage to the pulp can also result from thermal injury caused by incorrect use of ultrasonic scaling or polishing when the scaler or polishing cup is placed on the tooth surface for an extended time. The treatment of choice for fractured teeth where pulp is exposed or when discolored teeth are present is either root canal therapy or surgical extraction.

Ignoring fractured or discolored tooth or teeth will prolong the pain and discomfort and allow the infection to propagate, which will eventually cause major problems.

Tags: Ask the Vet, Cats, Dogs, Health, Pet advice, Pet Dental Health, Pet health, Vet

Pet Dental Health Month – Periodontal Disease

Brush Your Pet's Teeth

Periodontal disease is the loss of the periodontal attachment apparatus (periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, cementum and gingiva). Since 75-85% of these structures are identified below the soft tissues of the oral cavity (e.g. gingiva, alveolar mucosa, and palatal mucosa), a thorough clinical subgingival evaluation and intraoral radiographs are required to assess, diagnose and treat periodontal disease.

Periodontal disease may be potentiated by, but not limited to, malocclusions, crowding and rotation of teeth, systemic disease, nutritional status, individual patient susceptibility, genetics, trauma, and increased tooth to jaw size ratios.

The clinical signs of periodontal disease are often hidden and insidious. Halitosis, gingivitis, supragingival plaque and calculus, reluctance to chew, head shyness, pawing at the mouth, dropping food, sneezing, nasal discharge, are clinical signs. Unfortunately, many of those clinical signs require astute client observation and/or careful questioning from the clinician. Most commonly, there may be no obvious clinical signs to the owner and untrained veterinarian.

Stages of periodontal disease:

Stage 1 – Marginal gingivitis with no attachment loss. Minimal plaque and calculus

Stage 2 – Moderate gingivitis, bleeding upon probing. More plaque and calculus     accumulation is present, especially in the gingival sulcus. Dental radiographs may show signs of up to 25% attachment loss and some horizontal bone loss may be evident.

Stage 3 – Moderate periodontal disease. Periodontal pockets may be present and dental radiographs may show signs of attachment loss between 25% and 50%. Teeth may become mobile. Vertical bone loss and infra-bony pockets may be present.

Stage 4 – Severe periodontal disease. Periodontal pockets greater than 9 mm. Attachment loss is greater than 50%. Significant infrabony pockets with very mobile teeth associated with severe halitosis and generalized stomatitis.

 

Tags: Ask the Vet, Cats, Dogs, Health, Pet dental health month, Pet health, Preventative pet care
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